If values are ETHICAL, then they are concerned with who you are to yourself. A typically ethical motto is "to be true to yourself no matter what happens". Ethics is therefore concerned with right and wrong (rather than the good vs evil of moralism). That is the right thing to do which is what you do for yourself to be yourself. Zarathushtra was absolutely into this. This is why he constantly speaks of "being good for the sake of goodness itself and only this" and how what we think becomes what we speak which becomes what we do which in turn returns to become one with us. You become your actions just like your thoughts and words determine your actions. Please note that there is no place for ANY God-Judge whatsoever within this feedback loop. Consequently, unique among early religious theologies, you will not find any commandments listed anywhere in The Gathas. All values are ethical, created by and for you to be you, there is no room for any moralism anywhere. Interestingly, this concept of pure ethics was unheard of in western theology and philosophy until Spinoza introduced the theme in hismajor work "Ethics" (he borrowed the theme of ethics from the Moroccan sufis), even though there were ethicists among the Greek philosophers. Paramenides and Heraclitus are often counted among them. Plato however was a secular moralist. To him, the word of ideas was the real world and set the standard for values in the physical world. This is why Platonism became so popular both within Christianity and Islam, it blended so easily with the religious moralism. The Gospel of John is one big merger of Platonist philosophy and Judaist theology.
Spinoza's potential influence of Nietzsche's Zarathustra character would be most interesting to hear more about. Nietzsche loved Spinoza and refered to him as his only friend, despite the fact that Spinoza had been dead for over a century when Nietzsche was born. So he meant this spiritually.
2008/10/1 Special Kain
Thank you very much for correcting me!
Could you please dig a little deeper in these philosophical definitions? It is very interesting and I'd like to know more about it!
Kind regards, Dino
PS: Searching the Internet I accidentally stumbled upon a German article discussing Spinoza's role as inspiration for Nietzsche's 'Zarathustra' character. Maybe it will contain information that might be interesting for Ushta? I'll read it and we'll see.